A reading, regardless of which medium or method is used, is often anchored by a spirit(s) and can portray a vital stream of communication from spirit to the medium. These messages can be conveyed through spoken, visual or other separate communications and premonitions. These phenomena are known as clairvoyance, clairaudients and clairsentient.
Most mediums have a preferred method or instrument to assist performing their readings. Common practices are using pendulums, Tarot cards, Rune stones, crystal balls, salt crystals, objects belonging to a specific person and even specially formulated herbal tealeaves have been used as a link to spirit.